In an article last week, I discussed Five Reasons Why Emotional Intelligence (EI) Workshops Fail. In that article, I described research on efforts to enhance Emotional Intelligence in the workplace and why it is often unsuccessful. I appreciated the wide-ranging comments, which added new perspectives and new dimensions to this topic.
In my article this week, I will discuss recommendations Cherniss, Goleman, Emmerling, Cowan, & Adler (1998) made after their research. They focus on the elements that must be in place to develop a culture that fosters and supports an emotionally satisfying and productive workplace — one in which individuals can thrive. Their four-step process suggests the following:
Preparation - Preparing an organization for EI improvement includes analyzing the organization’s needs, assessing group and individual strengths and limitations, providing feedback based on that assessment, allowing personal choice, linking learning goals to values, encouraging the group through the leaders’ commitment to EI, and gauging group and individual readiness for change.
Training - In addition to the conceptual framework trainers create to talk about EI, it is important to promote positive relationships between trainer(s) and participants, encourage self-directed change, set clear goals for change, break EI goals into manageable steps, use active learning (experiential) methods such as role play and simulations, provide and maximize opportunities for practice, provide frequent and supportive feedback during training, allow participants to observe effective and ineffective models, and encourage reflection and opportunities for insight.
Transfer and maintenance- After training takes place, leaders and trainers must encourage participants to use new EI skills on the job. They must also work to build a culture that supports emotionally intelligent learning and prevents relapse through reflection, coaching and mentoring.
Evaluation - All effective professional develop requires evaluation and ongoing research. In addition to the basic needs, EI evaluation should include study of emotionally intelligent behavioral changes, goal implementation and recommendations for further training and support.
The authors published this report in 1998, and I believe the information is still pertinent. However, it is useful to consider additional research. Zeidner (2004) and Nowak (N.D.) offer additional recommendations based on their own research and meta-analysis. In my recent book, Connect: Affective Leadership (sm) for Effective Results, I offer suggestions as well. Waterhouse (2006) offers a different view as she urges caution in embracing EI concepts because she says the theory lacks sound empirical support.
Whether one calls it Emotional Intelligence, common courtesy, or behavioral expectations, leaders must consider the emotional climate of their organizations and provide opportunities to explore how to make them better. With the multitude of topics and decisions leaders face, a one-day seminar on emotional intelligence is an easy answer to concerns about morale, work environment and customer service. However, group and individual success and improvement in behavior tied to emotional reactions require much more.
How do you improve the emotional climate in your organization or in organizations with which you work?
- Cherniss, C., Goleman, D., Emmerling, R., Cowan, K., & Adler, M. (1998). Bringing Emotional Intelligence to the Workplace: A Technical Report Issued by the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. Retrieved from Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations: http://www.eiconsortium.org/reports/technical_report.html
- Nowak, K. (N.D.) Leadership, Emotional Intelligence and Employee Engagement: Creating a Psychologically Healthy Workplace Retreived from envisialearning.com: http://abstracts.envisialearning.com/43-abstractFile.pdf
- Waterhouse, L. (2006) Multiple Intelligences, the Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence: A Critical Review. Educational Psychologist, 41(4), 207–225 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Retrieved from http://graduatestudenthelp.com/LynnWaterhouse.pdf
- Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., Roberts, R., (2004) Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace: A Critical Review Retrieved from Wiley Online Library- Applied Psychology: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2004.00176.x/full